Survival of C. cardunculus seedlings grown from seeds in 16 exclosures. Seeds were planted in December, 1999 and cages for the n = 8 uncaged plots were removed in February, 2000 once ≥ 5 seedlings were observed in all cages (at first census on February 17, mean number of seedlings ± SE: caged 26.00 ± 2.21; uncaged 29.38 ± 2.56). In ANOVA testing, no significant difference was found between cage and uncaged plots for any census date (p-values fell between 0.319 – 0.653). All observed “mortality” (i.e., above ground parts shriveled and brown) was from drying.